Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin - Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences - Department of Chemistry

General Chemistry

Structure of matter: Elements, atoms, molecules, elementary particles. The atomic nucleus: Isotopes and radioactivity. Electrons in atoms. Spectra, introductory remarks on Bohr's theory, particles and waves. Models of the Atom.

The periodic system: Aufbau principle, ground state electron configuration, valence electrons. Properties of groups and periods, periodic properties of the elements (radii, ionization energies, electron affinities), metals, metalloids, non-metals.

Nature of the chemical bond: Bond types, ideal cases of covalent, ionic and metallic bonds, electronegativity, polar covalent bonds, partial charges, bond order, bond lengths, bond energies, valence bond structure, formal charges, molecular structure, valence shell electron pair repulsion model (VSEPR).

Introduction to laboratory techniques: Materials in the lab, lab equipment, glassware. Heating, cooling, measurement of pressures and temperatures. Determination of mass and volume. Separation techniques for heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures. Physical methods for the identification of substances(refraction index, melting point, boiling point, density, absorption of light). Calorimetry.

Basics of stoichiometry: fundamental units, SI, atomic mass, molecular mass, relative formula mass, chemical equivalents. The concept of 'amount of substance', the concept of 'mole', physical realization of the 'mole', basic laws of stoichiometry, units of concentration, mixing, diluting. Ideal gases, their equation of state, Avogadro's law. Faradays laws of electrolysis. Balancing of equations. Chemical nomenclature, IUPAC rules.

Chemical reactions - main types of reactions: acid-base, redox, precipitation and complexation, the concept of hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB).

A closer look at matter: Gases - the laws of Boyle and Mariotte, Gay-Lussac; equations of state, real gases, liquified gases, preparation and handling of gases. Liquids: solutions, solvents, vapor pressure, partial pressure, fundamentals of destillation, liquid-vapor equilibrium diagram, colligative properties (melting point depression, boiling point elevation). Solids: ideal and real crystals; lattice energy, lattice constants, unit cell, crystallo-graphic systems. closest sphere packing, structures of AB-, AB2- and ABX3-type compounds.

E. Riedel, Anorganische Chemie, 3. Aufl. 1994, de Gruyter.
H.R. Christen, G. Meyer, Allgemeine und Anorganische Chemie, Band I und II (mit Übungen) 1997, Salle und Sauerländer.
Ch.E. Mortimer: Chemie – Das Basiswissen der Chemie, (mit Übungsaufgaben) 8. Aufl., G. Thieme, 2003.