Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin - Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences - Department of Chemistry

Biological Chemistry

What is Biological Chemistry? What is life?

Nucleic acids: Historicals, definition of nucleosides, primary structure, secondary structure, Chargaffs rules, double helix, acid-base properties, hydrogen bonding, stacking, secondary structural elements, hybridization, melting temperature, acid- and base sensititivity of nucleic acids, reactions with nucleophiles and electrophiles, alkylating agents, cancer, metal complexation, DNA-sequencing, DNA-synthesis, DNA-probes.

Proteins, peptides and amino acids: Structure and properties of amino acids, amino acid analysis, peptides, peptide bond, protecting groups, peptide synthesis, solid phase synthesis, α–helix, β–strand, turns, sequence analysis, proteins, function, esterases, enzyme inhibitors, chemical warfare.

Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, structure, relativeand absolute configuration, Fischer and Haworth projection, mutarotation, chair conformation, reduction and oxidation, chain elongation in chemistry and nature, acetals, glycosides, disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, maltose, Cellubiose, Chitobiose, Muscarin, Ascorbic Acid, Streptomycine, Polycaccharides, Starch, gylocgen, cyclodextrines, dextranes, cellulose, viscose, glycoconjugates, carbohydrates in biology, Blodd groups, glycolipids, saccharide synthesis, protecting groups, acetals and ketals, esters, ethers, glycosylation chemistry.

Lipids: Triacylglycerides, physical properties, glycerophospholipids, nomenklature, inositols, PLC, sphingolipids, gangliosides, cell-cell adhesion.

Steroids: Nomenklature and stereochemistry, sterines, cholesterole and atherosclerosis, cholesterol biosynthesis, ergosterine, gallic acids, steroid hormones.

Lipid aggregates: Micells, liposomes, lipid double layer, transversal and lateral diffusion, membrane fluidity.

Biological membranes: Membrane proteines, asymmetric orientation, fluid-mosaic modell, cytoskeleton.